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Olive Oil Industry
A member of Oleacea family and regarded as a sacred fruit by all religions and dating back to B.C. 12,000s according to the archeological remains, homeland of olive is Upper Mesopotamia area that covers southeastern part of Anatolia, Syria, Palestine and the area which covers Iran on the south of Caucasus. Olive has spread to Egypt and other Northern Africa counties over Cyprus in Mediterranean basin, and also to Crete and Greece over Anatolia and then to Italy, France and Spain and then reached to Latin America by Spanish sailors.

Regarded as the plant of 20th Century today, this special fruit has spread to South Africa, China, Japan, Australia, Latin America and Pakistan due to its healthy constituents and is getting more important every other day. Although olive is currently being cultivated on 5 continents in nearly 58 countries on an area of 160,000 Ha, number of countries which consume olive and olive oil has reached to nearly 180 today.

Although current vegetable oil production quantity throughout the world is 187 million tons, olive oil constitutes only 3.1 million tons of this figure. Nearly 70-75% of this produced olive oil is being consumed by the manufacturing countries.

The most significant basic property of olive oil that distinguishes it from other vegetable oils is being a valuable oil which is considered as a fruit oil obtained by pressing the fruit without requiring refining. On the other hand, positive effects of the minor constituents of the olive oil on the human health has made olive oil one of the most important foodstuffs in the world.

Increase in the interest in living a long life in addition to the increased interest in healthy and well balanced diet habits in the recent years have led the people to consume olive and olive oil more. Being one of the most important products from the economic and social perspective for the manufacturing countries, olive and olive oil are also a part of the culture which symbolizes the Mediterranean.


Process
Olives shall be shipped to the factory without delay upon harvest and separately without mixing up the olives that were picked from the ground and from the tree (also separating the organic olives, if any) and placed in perforated crates to prevent deterioration and to ensure proper ventilation.
Introduction of olives to the production line is realized with olive conveyor belt with bunker. Olives unloaded to the bunker are conveyed to the washing machine by carrying pallet conforming to food law. Belt speed can be adjusted to the desired speed electronically. Leaves and lightweight foreign matters are removed by leaf separator. Bodies of our products are completely made of stainless steel. As HAUS we provide solutions for solely twig, leaf and stone elimination without washing the olives in order to prevent loss of olives directly picked from trees and delivered to the factory and their antioxidant components due to water.
Olives separated from twigs and leaves are transferred to vibratory washing reservoir for eliminating sand and dirt. Water on the olive is minimized by vibratory sieve. In order to prevent quality losses that may occur attention shall be paid to deliver the olives to the factory intact as far as possible and avoid damaging their membranes while washing.
Washed olives are delivered to the crusher by the conveyor belt. Olives are completely crushed in the crusher by hammer type metal crushers. Crushing process is important in terms of both physical and chemical perspectives. Hence, extraction of olive oil from the texture of the olive fruit commences with the crushing and pressing of the fruits. The purpose is to break down the fruit cells for extracting the oil from intracellular voids and to facilitate kneading in the malaxator by increasing the surface area. If the paste produced in crushing process is thick, in other words, contains coarse fruit and pit pieces then oil pores are not exposed and oil content left in pomace which is a byproduct extracted in the later stage can increase. HAUS offers optional crusher screens with different mesh diameters depending on the varying conditions of the olives throughout the season for an optimum crushing and kneading (malaxation) process.
Decanter is a piece of equipment that separates the phases in the olive paste according to the concentrations by applying centrifugal force physically. Decanters are considered as the main equipment which determines the capacity of a plant. It performs phase separation by using gravitational force and it is a continuous system which is fed with olive paste and outputs oil at the same time. Decanter centrifuge consists of a drum rotating at high speeds a screw conveyor rotating on the same axis with the drum but at a different speed, transmission system which causes the speed difference and the frame which supports the rotating members.

Oil separation process can be performed in 2 different productions methods as 2-phase ecological system and 3-phase conventional system. Pressing method which is among the oldest methods is still in use. In the result of the studies aiming to compare 2-phase and 3-phase method it was evidenced that phenols in the oil migrate to water and phenol rate decreases due to use of water in 3-phase systems.

HAUS offers single-motor decanters and also dual-motor decanters which feature Dual Drive technology for the global olive oil market with the unique design capabilities of its engineering team in the R&D Center and its technological infrastructure using high quality stainless steel raw materials in compliance with the food law. Separation / Oil Cleaning Olive oil separated at the decanter (horizontal centrifuge) is transferred to the Separator (vertical centrifuge) for clearing the olive oil discharged from the decanter from the particles and sediment it contains, to gain a more clear appearance, to facilitate filtration process and to prevent the quality loss occurring in time due to sediments left in the olive oil. Also again with the help of the centrifugal force, small quantities of water in the olive oil and other particles are separated and transferred to the next step in accordance with the final usage purpose. https://zeytinay.csb.gov.tr/zeytinyagi-uretim-proseslerinin-karsilastirilmasi-i-5620







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